41 Черныш М.Ф. Основы изучения причин межэтнической напряженности a state of group consciousness of two or more ethnic groups with manifest aversion or hostility to each other. In his works Durkheim emphasized that inter-ethnic tension is caused by the weakness of common civic values. In his view only the society in which common civic values are shared by the majority of the population has the right to be called “moral”. Mobilization on the basis of ethnic values weakens society by putting one ethnic group against another. The left-wing tradition views inter-ethnic tension as a result of incomplete emancipation of ethnic groups in contemporary society. In the studies of cultural orientation (Gellner, Hobsbaum) inter-ethnic tension is attributed to the process of cultural selection in the course of national state construction. In different situations, inter-ethnic tension has a different array of causes, therefore, following the recommendation of R. Boudon, it should be placed in a concrete context with regard to the economic, social and cultural factors that form it. Keywords: a social group; an ethnic group; the rise of ethnic consciousness; inter-ethnic tension; conflict; “moral society”; national state; class conflict. For citation: Chernysh M.F. Theoretical and Methodological Study of Ethnic tension Causation. Sotsiologicheskiy Zhurnal = Sociological Journal. 2016. Vol. 22. No. 4. P. 25 – 41. DOI: 10.19181/socjour.2016.22.4. 4806 REFERENCES 1. Boudon R. La place du desordre: Critique des theories du changement social. [Russ. ed.: Budon R. Mesto besporyadka. Kritika teorii sotsial’nogo izmeneniya. Transl. from French by M.M. Kirichenko; Ed. by M.F. Chernysh. Moscow: Aspekt Press publ., 1998. 284 p.] 2. Marks K. On the Jewish Question [online]. Accessed 25.06.2016. URL: marxists.org/russkij/marx/1844/jewish.htm>. (In Russ.) 3. Marks K. A letter to K. Kautsky, February 7, 1882 [online]. Accessed 25.06.2016. URL: . (In Russ.) 4. Lenin V.I. O prave natsii na samoopredelenie. [On the rights of nations to self-deter- mination]. Sochineniya. 5 th ed. Moscow: Politizdat publ., 1973. P. 113 – 150. (In Russ.) 5. Appadurai A. Modernity at large. Cultural Dimension of Globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998. 229 p. 6. Cladis M. A Communitarian defense of liberalism. Emile Durkheim and contemporary social theory. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992. 339 p. 7. Fanon F. The wretched of the Earth. New York: Grove Press, 1963. 241 p. 8. Gellner E. Nations and nationalism. New perspectives on the past. 2 nd ed. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2009. 152 p. 9. Hobsbawm E. Nations and nationalism since 1780. Programme, myth and Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. 209 p. 10. Lukes S. Emile Durkheim: His life and works: A historical and critical study. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1973. 638 p. 11. Parkin F. Marxism and class theory. L.: Tavistock Publications, 1979. 217 p. 12. Smelser N. The social edges of psychoanalysis. Oakland: University of California Press, 1998. 263 p. 13. Urry J. Mobilities. L.: Polity Press, 2007. 334 p. 14. Wright E.O. Classes. L.: Verso, 1985. 344 p. Received: 30.07.2016.